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1|21 Philosophy, Politics and Africanism

Onyekachi Henry IBEKWE

Ruminations on the Debilitating Triad: Neo-Colonialism, Predatory Capitalism and Militarism

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Abstract

1This paper outlines a philosophical Pareto1 analysis of the socio-political and economic challenges that continue to stagnate large swathes of the African continent. If one can visualize these challenges as branches of a massive tree, then this paper maintains that neo-colonialism, predatory capitalism and militarism are the roots of this tree. By performing this causal analysis, the author hopes to lay the groundwork for an emancipatory discourse that does not chase after phantoms.

Introduction

2In the year 1919, Edward Morel, deeply disappointed with the wanton exploitation of the Congo by the Belgian colonial government, observed that:

“The African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the [triad] of imperialism, capitalistic-exploitation, and militarism. If the white man retains these gods (and if he insists upon making the African worship them as assiduously as he has done himself) the African will go the way of the red Indian, the Amerindian, the Carib, the Guanche, the aboriginal Australian, and many more.”2

3In the year 2020, over 100 years after Morel’s writing, similar problems continue to bog down many African countries. Imperialism has been replaced by neo-colonialism, capitalistic exploitation has morphed into more predatory forms, and militarism now includes subtle forms of biological warfare. I shall refer to these three challenges as the debilitaing triad. The devastating toll of this triad upon large sections of the African population cannot be lightly overlooked. I contend that a large part of the reasons why many African countries are "falling behind and falling apart"3 can and should be traced back to the three-pronged machinations of the debilitating triad.

4My objective in this paper is to articulate the modus operandi of the debilitating triad, and to formulate general frameworks for addressing their catastrophic effects. My overall project here is emancipatory in outlook, hoping to lay the groundwork for a more progressive and humane future. In this discourse, I make many allusions to often neglected knowledge coming from traditional African cultures and religions.4 The idea here is not to romanticize such knowledge but to engage them in dialogue with mainstream Western thinking. My arguments involve a certain distancing from the grand narratives of mainstream social, political and economic thought; pointing to long term unsustainability of Morel’s triad. I will lean heavily upon the hermeneutics of suspicion, often concurring that "everyone who has ever built anywhere a ‘new heaven’ first found the power thereto in his own hell.”5

5The paper is structured as follows: first, I present neo-colonialism, the first member of the debilitating triad. I intend to showcase neo-colonialism as ultimately the master of the other two members of the triad. Second, I engage with thorny aspects of capitalistic economics which tend to cause economic thought and praxis to emanate from a platform of systematized greed. Third I engage with the last member of the debilitating triad: militarism in its many forms. Within each section, I will articulate high-level responses by way of looking inwards to African cultures and religions for dialectical sources of practicable and sustainable solutions.

The Pattern of Neo-Colonialism

6Neo-colonialism can be defined as the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country, in lieu of either direct military control6 or indirect political control.7 Despite the possible good intentions of neo-colonialists, long experience has revealed that sustained neo-colonial practice leads to tight corners and paradoxes. Some scholars hold the suspicious view that modern political systems strive to keep African countries perpetually embroiled in internal inter-ethnic strife, creating nation states that remain "aloof from indigenous or native society and enforce[s] its will through violence and repression, placing emphasis on the rudiments of law and order that [are] sufficient to ensure economic exploitation."8The irony behind it all comes to light when those that vehemently accused ATR9 of engaging in human sacrifice turned around and sacrificed millions of Africans in order to appease the neo-colonial idols10that adorned the shrines of economic interest. Upon deeper examination on the basis of Critical Theory, this comes as no surprise since “the idea of the national community […], first set up as an idol, can eventually be maintained only by terror.”11Given the realpolitik of our times, I do not imagine that these situations will magically disappear. Indeed, entire armies, treaties and armaments have long been deployed to maintain the neo-colonial status-quo. Attempts to reverse some of these political structures remain at the root of many contemporary violent (and undesirable) conflicts. Well did Jean-MarcEla note that "in order to emerge from situations of misery and injustice in which the vast majority of Africans live after [many] years of independence, and which offend man's dignity, great is the temptation to repel such insults to human dignity with violence."12

7Consequently, to address neo-colonialism, I propose an indirect route: focused on reducing the devastating effects of its two handmaids: predatory capitalism and militarism. Those who intend to struggle against extremely sophisticated external manipulations would do better if not bogged down in various forms of scorched earth warfare. The key here is to be able to thrive in spite of neo-colonial machinations, like a snail that gently climbs the thorny stem of a wild flower.

The Pattern of Predatory Capitalism

8Predatory capitalism refers to uncritical acceptance of domination and exploitation as normal economic practice. On the national and international levels, instances include unchallenged political corruption, the sabotaging of trade unions, the suppression of wages, the perpetuation of economic slavery, and wealth creation by means of imposing debt on vulnerable populations. The dire consequences of predatory capitalism are well presented in the documentary movie titled "The Wages of Debt"13:

In the [1980s], trapped by the amount of debt, third world governments were forced to reimburse their loans with interest rates five to six times higher than those practised on financial markets. These countries then had forced upon them structural adjustment plans by the IMF, which led to the privatization of public services and the massive export of resources, with disastrous consequences for their development. In their wake, came corruption and subtle networking which left a long-lasting legacy.14

9In light of these occurrences, the curious classification of countries into First World, Second World and Third World (with the Third World perennially taking loans in their attempts to upgrade their status and become just like the First World) countries become problematic upon further inspection. For instance, close analysis has revealed that “for every person in the world to reach the present [United States] levels of consumption with existing technology would require [resources from] four more planet Earths.”15 The emanating tragedy remains that those Third World countries that have worked hard to become First World countries have “joined the industrial world in erasing the last of the natural environments.”16The depletion of the natural environment is once more identifiable with the disdain of [Nature's] ordinary providence. The proliferation of highfalutin ecological and theological discourse, without meaningful actions, will have little effect on improving the earth's environment. It is not surprising that the earth begins to resemble an “immense pile of filth.”17 Attempts to implement the fuzzy concept of economic growth have caused human existence to adopt the dynamics of cancer cells. Some poor African countries have now jumped from the frying pan of debt slavery into the fire of environmental degradation. Small wonder Moyo classified the international debt enterprise as "Dead Aid."18

10Awkward metaphysical19 structures continue to animate economic misery in contemporary times. For instance, the over-emphasis on economic production remains blind to the question of demand-and-supply: Who will consume all that is produced? Will the market be free and fair? Why do we need beggar-thy-neighbor20,21 tactics to ensure the real or simulated demand and supply? The myriad hermeneutical prejudices22 of many economic experts have effectively become blinders imposed upon millions of people. Economic experts have hijacked the hermeneutical spiral, and theoretical economic models have replaced the received wisdoms that sustained millions of people in Africa from times immemorial.

11Economic prophets have surreptitiously replaced the false religious prophets of biblical times. The tyranny of such prophets continues to dominate and dictate the lives of many. Modern economics, if it is not to lead the African economies to the edge of doom, stands in dire need of a hermeneutic of suspicion. Keen went as far as denouncing modern economics as “the naked emperor of the social sciences.”23 The myriad formulations of neo-classical economics are transcendental entities imposed upon human communities. The transcendental flaws in their formulation aid the construction and perpetuation of poverty. Africa is loaded with resources,24 yet millions go hungry. Those who seek to help the hungry continue to resort to the transcendental economic constructs, and the cycle of misery is re-energized.

12On an optimistic note, the myriad weaknesses latent in contemporary economic ratiocinations are the very things that can be exploited in the crafting of more viable economic solutions. All that is needed is a fundamental openness to dialectical discourse.

A Response: Hybridized Economics

13Upon close examination, it can be shown that contemporary understanding of terms like ‘wealth’ and ‘poverty’ tend to be constructed upon shaky foundations, economic and otherwise. These concepts are quickly rendered empty of their presumed meanings upon serious critique. The uncritical reduction of the idea of wealth to narrow manifestations of paper money remains problematic. Questions abound: where does paper money get its value from? Why does vaguely defined paper money continue to dominate the economic discourse? Do we need to elaborate more on the hermeneutics of paper money? The fastest way out of ‘poverty’ is to undertake a radical re-definition of ‘wealth’.

14The surest way to sustainable ‘wealth’ is to remember that “nature can provide for the needs of mankind, but it cannot provide for the greed of mankind.”25 In light of the preceding, it can be argued that the Enlightenment thought process26 which sought to cleanse the world of myths and enthrone reason ultimately liquidated reason and multiplied pseudo-scientific myths. The greed of mankind has been synthesized in the most awkward thought processes that seek to impose ideas upon nature, rather than bow down and learn from nature. Africa has been reduced to a source of raw materials and a huge market of consuming non-producers.

15I propose the adoption of a two-layered economic system within each African country that has been affected by poorly articulated economic ratiocinations. This hybrid economy will consist of two layers. First, an outward-facing economy that interfaces with the international (money-dependent) community. Secondly an inward-facing economy, directed toward optimizing the life of each ethnic group within the country. The idea here is to optimize those aspects of tribal life that ensure the continued availability of food, shelter and clothing; all without the excessive dependence upon money. Anta Diop spoke about two aspects of African traditions: one that has "remained intact and continues to survive"27 and another one "that has been altered by contamination from Europe." The response I propose here must develop deep-rooted cultural competencies with regard to these two aspects and put them in dialogue with other traditions of the world.

16This exercise will entail checkmating the routine demonization of ancient cultures; cultures that are usually poorly understood or badly misinterpreted (and many of these cultures subsisted for centuries with minimal need for money28). I concur with Sen as he argues that “poverty must be seen as the deprivation of basic capabilities rather than merely as lowness of [monetary] incomes, which is the standard criterion of identification of poverty.”29 I outline some key elements of this exercise in the following paragraphs.

17Striving to make good education cheap and functional on several levels. I have already worked up a blueprint for linking schools to viable industries.30 Schools will need a modified philosophy of education, one that is amenable to a hybridized economic system. Great cultural competencies will need to be fleshed out in these projects.

18Optimization of local food production. Rural farmers should be encouraged and incentivized to produce whatever food they can in commercially viable quantities. Many of these rural communities provided for themselves in times past. The culture of encouraging them to depend solely upon imported food items should be heavily discouraged. It will be a good idea to return to the local traditions, to optimize their processes, and to ensure the availability of healthy food items.

19Renewable energy like wind and solar power should be preferred for mechanized work. There has been enough damage done by the careless drilling for crude oil in places like Nigeria. Many African countries receive large quantities of sunlight each year. There is no obstacle to taking advantage of this freely available natural resource.

The Many Faces of Militarism

20Given the rise of nation states in modern Africa, there will always be justification for the institution of armies meant to defend the territorial integrity of these states. In this sense, militarism has its uses. On the other hand, the many civil wars that have plagued African nation states continue to boggle the imagination. Appendix 1 depicts a resource map of Africa. It is of particular interest to note that the regions with the highest deposits of natural resources are frequently war zones and trouble spots. Harbom and Wellensteen tabulated the statistics of armed conflicts by region between the years 1989 and 2009, their results are tabulated in Table 1.

Table 1: Armed conflicts by region 1989 - 200931

21The table reveals that there were 131 global armed conflicts that raged between the years 1989 and 2009. Focusing now upon Africa, the rightmost column of Table 1immediately reveals that Africa (the supposedly poorest continent) had to contend with 41 armed conflicts between the years 1989 and 2009. Once more, the existence of 41 conflicts in a continent comprised of 54 countries, over a period of 20 years, remains something to keep pondering about. Based upon an examination of the rightmost column, one can boldly draw a statistical correlation between economic poverty and armed conflict: those places deemed economically poor tend to mysteriously devolve into armed conflict. The paradox here is striking. Feinstein has described the shadow global arms trade as “a sprawling web of networks,”32 making the case that:

Unsurprisingly, Africa has been among the shadow world’s most fertile ground. The continent’s colonial history, independence struggles, Cold War battles, weak state formations and ‘big men’ rulers willing to plunder their nations to retain power and enrich themselves have ensured continuous conflict, violence and poverty.33

22The shadow arms trade animated the atrocities committed in the prosecution of Africa’s most notorious conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Somalia, Sudan, Egypt, Libya and Ivory Coast. The scale of these conflicts has rendered Africa fertile ground for transactions involving shadow arms dealers.

23I remember contemplating the photographs of ragged-looking African child soldiers, wielding sophisticated weapons whose financial value could pay their school fees and feed them for several weeks. Many more of such photographs abound of war-torn countries with “financially challenged” fighters armed with expensive military gear; all this despite the fact that Third World countries are often essentialized, in the media and elsewhere, using the adjective poor. There remains, however, the puzzle of how these essentially poor peoples are able to sustain long-running wars with the use of costly military gear. On the one hand I concur that nation-states indeed need armies, arms and ammunition in order to protect their territorial integrities. On the other hand, the subversive and illegal flow of arms and ammunitions (often into the hands of so-called rebel groups) must continue to raise eyebrows. When the exchange of gunshots and explosive ordnances remains the preferred mode of settling differences, then this modernized dog-eat-dog state-of-nature must be interrogated.

24How did acceptable levels of militarism give way to irresponsibly fragmented militias? What made it easier to build up mutually antagonistic militias than to provide roads, hospitals and other infrastructures? Why was it easier to recruit child soldiers than to build schools and buy textbooks for children? How is it that supposedly poor African tribes are suddenly able to purchase seemingly inexhaustible quantities of arms, ammunition and other military hardware for the prosecution of nearly perpetual wars? Aptly Kasomo observed that "the contemporary multi-ethnic states have not yet succeeded in creating a pluralistic and homogeneous state that is able to overcome inter-group rivalry and conflicts."34

25The advent of monotheistic religions (especially Islam and Christianity) can also be statistically linked to armed conflicts in many parts of Africa. Problems abound: if such violence became essential to the spreading and maintenance of monotheism, then perhaps the time is long overdue to call out all those that have converted monotheism into an idol that demands human sacrifices. Schwartz has noted that “monotheism is a myth that forges identity antithetically – against the other.”35 The potential for great violence against the other has never been more palpable: my monotheistic god is better than your monotheistic god, thus I must coerce you to serve my monotheistic god. The progressively intractable misdeeds of groups like Boko Haram, Al-Shabab and the Christian-Muslim conflicts in Central Africa and the Sudan are but few examples.

26In addition to militarism animated by firearms, I must also mention a sinister form of militarism animated by biological micro-organisms. As if to darken an already dire state of affairs, some schools of thought have long been suspicious of the rise of so-called epidemics like AIDS36 and Ebola in various African countries. Scientists like Moore have agonized over the curious origins of the AIDS virus. Moore outlined four mutually contradicting theories about the origins of the AIDS virus, concluding that "the solution almost certainly will come from one or more of four competing theories."37 Add to this scientific confusion the immense amount of political and economic gimmicks that have been played around medications and vaccines for AIDS, and what results is a humanitarian disaster waiting to happen. In the year 2013, a documentary titled "Fire in the Blood"38 detailed the process by which "millions of Africans with AIDS […] have died because they couldn’t afford the antiretroviral drugs that could have saved their lives."39 Add to this quagmire the COVID-19 pandemic (that will ensure the long-lived infamy of the year 2020) and the painful politicization of scientific research work.

Responding to Multi-faceted Militarism

27With respect to the proliferation of arms and militias, I contend that a certain lack of social cohesion continues to bedevil many African countries. The race-obsessed tendency to see everyone as “black” loses sight of linguistic, cultural and religious differences that morph into weak links in nation building. What is worse, these differences were hardly accounted for in the political philosophies that animate many African countries. I take the position that some of the political philosophies need to be re-imagined. The totalitarian political philosophies that depend upon violence for their legitimacy are in dire need of critique. This will take massive levels of education and re-orientation. In addition, alternative means of dispute resolution need to be looked into. African tribes are already richly blessed by the various flavours of ATR which teach adherents to seek to avoid “resolving […] conflicts through war and violence, […][but] learn from our traditional religion which advocated peace, justice and reconciliation at all cost.”40 To this end, I highlight the need to involve the local priests, priestesses, shamans (and so on) in the formation of the social contracts in African countries. Furthermore, it would be necessary to involve the myriad traditional societies, which “served to strengthen male prestige”41 in dialogue toward the formation of a more just and peaceful social contract. Magesa devoted several pages to this issue,42 citing examples from the eastern regions of Africa. In this manner, the social contract will be seen to contain symbols, linguistic or otherwise, which convey deeper meanings to the Africans themselves.

28With regard to the deadly spread of micro-organisms, I propose a more intense study and application of medicinal plants. African countries are noted for the diverse array of plants thriving in well-preserved forests. The time has come to appreciate the medicinal treasure latent in these plants, rather than see the forests as obstacles to so-called ‘development’. Thankfully, many people have already begun looking into the optimization of homeopathic43 remedies of African Traditional Medicines.44 This step will drive down the cost of healthcare due to the fact that homeopathy strives directly to strengthen the body against the onslaught of infectious microorganisms. Linked to the philosophy of education, homeopathic training will augment the dominant medical worldview linked with high costs of implementation. Tied to this is the avoidance of GMO,45 given the suspicion and controversy that has plagued these food items for decades now.46,47,48

Conclusion: Toward an African Renaissance

29I conclude by making a brief reflection on the African Renaissance:49 a re-birth of the continent. Originated by Cheikh Anta Diop50 in 1946, this idea was later to be popularized by Thabo Mbeki during his tenure as president of South Africa. I contend that engaging the debilitating triad (beginning by checkmating their deliterious effects) will put the continent on the path of the much-discussed renaissance. However, being strongly influenced by analytic philosophy (admitting that it is not the panacea for resolving all societal quagmires), I further contend that the African Renaissance must necessarily inherit and embrace the density that is at the heart of the reality called Africa. This means, for instance, that the renaissance of the whole of Africa must depend on the renaissance of the various portions and segments within the continent. I also maintain that this renaissance be seen "as an agenda for modernization, an agenda for neo-traditionalism, and an agenda for Africanisation"51, proceeding by the rigorous interrogation of colonial grand narratives.

30Finally, I contend that a clear distinction must be made and maintained between civilization and Westernization (or indeed any manifestation of cultural imperialism). Heidegger described the dasein as the “shepherd of Being.”52It is up to African daseins to retain life-giving entities within their worldview, and to throw out life-denying idols. The time has come to jettison Afro-phobic thought processes and embrace Afrofuturism.53

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Annexes

Notes

1 The Pareto Principle states that 80% of consequences come from 20% of the causes. The principle, which was derived from the imbalance of land ownership in Italy, is commonly used to illustrate the notion that things are not equal, and the minority owns the majority.

2 E. D. Morel, The Black Man’s Burden (London: The National Labour Press, 1919), 9.

3 Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done about It (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 3.

4 I recognize that there may be close to three thousand flavors of African Traditional Religion (ATR) that are usually ignored in typical inter-religious dialogue.

5 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic, trans. Maudemarie Clark and Alan J. Swensen (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Co, 1998), 82.

6 Imperialism.

7 Hegemony.

8 Eghosa E. Osaghae, “Fragile States,” Development in Practice 17, no. 4–5 (August 2007): 695, https://doi.org/10.1080/09614520701470060.

9 African Traditional Religion.

10 For example, preserving the "integrity" of nation states by eliminating people who hold dissenting opinions.

11 Max Horkheimer, Eclipse of Reason (London: Continuum, 1947), 14.

12 Jean-Marc Ela and Robert R Barr, African Cry (Eugene, Or.:Wipf& Stock, 2005), 55.

13 https://www.rt.com/shows/documentary/africa-wages-of-debt-799/

14 Jean-Pierre Carlon, Press Kit: The Wages of Debt (La Ciotat: ARTE France, 2010).

15 Edward O. Wilson, The Future of Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002), 23.

16 Wilson, 22.

17 Pope Francis, Laudato Si (Rome: Vatican Press, 2015), para. 21.

18 Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa, 1st American ed (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009).

19 Metaphysical here is meant in the broader philosophical sense, not limited to ‘spiritual beings’.

20 In economics, a beggar-thy-neighbour policy is an economic policy through which one country attempts to remedy its economic problems by means that tend to worsen the economic problems of other countries.

21 See Adam Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Book IV, Chapter III (part II): "nations have been taught that their interest consisted in beggaring all their neighbours"

22 Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method, 2nd Ed. (London: Continuum, 1989), 281.

23 Steve Keen, Debunking Economics: The Naked Emperor of the Social Sciences (Annandale: Pluto Press, 2002), 2.

24 See Resource Map of Africa in Appendix-1.

25 Gandhi is supposed to have said this in Hindi in 1947 to his secretary, Pyarelal Nayyar, who reproduced it in his book, Mahatma Gandhi: The Last Phase, 2 vols. (Ahmedabad, 1956–1958), 2 : 552.

26 These Enlightenment thought processes ultimately produced neo-classical economic theories.

27 Cheikh Anta Diop and Egbuna P Modum, Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in African Culture & Development, 1946-1960 (London: Karnak House, 1996), 33.

28 Several African tribes used cowries and manilas for currency.

29 AmartyaSen, Development as Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999), 87.

30 Henry Ibekwe, “A Pragmatist, Progressivist Blueprint for the Twinning of Tertiary Education and Industry in Nigeria” (Course Work (Philosophy of Education), Arrupe College, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2013).

31 Lotta Harbom and Peter Wallensteen, “Armed Conflicts, 1946-2009,” Journal of Peace Research 47, no. 4 (July 2010): 502.

32 Andrew Feinstein, The Shadow World: Inside the Global Arms Trade (New York: Picador, 2012), 435.

33 Ibid.

34 Daniel Kasomo, “The Position of African Traditional Religion in Conflict Prevention,” International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2, no. 2 (February 2010): 23.

35 Regina M. Schwartz, The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 16.

36 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

37 Jim Moore, “The Puzzling Origins of AIDS,” American Scientist 92 (2004): 540.

38 http://fireintheblood.com/

39 Miriam Bale, “Where AIDS Steals Life by the Millions,” New York Times, September 5, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/movies/fire-in-the-blood-spotlights-aids-in-africa.html?_r=1.

40 Dickson Nkonge Kagema, “The Role of the African Traditional Religion in the Promotion of Justice, Reconciliation and Peace in Africa in the Twenty-First Century: A Kenyan Experience,” International Journal of African and Asian Studies 15 (2015): 9.

41 Geoffrey Parrinder, West African Religion: A Study of the Beliefs and Practices of Akan, Ewe, Yoruba, Ibo, and Kindred Peoples. (Eugene, Oregon: Wipf& Stock Publishers, 2014), 128.

42 LaurentiMagesa, African Religion: The Moral Traditions of Abundant Life (New York: Orbis Books, 1997), 234–40.

43 Homeopathy is the practice of medicine that embraces a holistic, natural approach to the treatment of the sick. Homeopathy is holistic because it treats the person as a whole, rather than focusing on a diseased part or alabelled sickness.

44 Maurice M. Iwu, Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, 2nd ed (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014).

45 Genetically Modified Organism

46 Ntomba Reginald, “The Zambian Example: Green and Unfarmed,” New African, no. 537 (March 2014): 26–27.

47 Monbiot George, “Beware of Greek Bearing Gifts,” New African, no. 537 (March 2014): 20–21.

48 Regina Jane Jere, “How Africa Can Feed Itself: Beyond Food Aid and Corporate Greed,” New African, no. 537 (March 2014): 8–34.

49 The African Renaissance must not imitate the Renaissance of Europe which took place between the 14th and 17th centuries of the Common Era.

50 Cheikh Anta Diop, Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in African Culture & Development, 1946-1960, trans. Egbuna P Modum (London: Karnak House, 1996).

51 Ineke van Kessel, “In Search of an African Renaissance,” Quest XV, no. 1–2 (2001): 43.

52 Martin Heidegger, “Letter on Humanism,” Journal of Global Religious Vision 1, no. 1 (2000): 91.

53 Afrofuturism is a cultural aesthetic, philosophy of science and philosophy of history that explores the developing intersection of African (and African diaspora) culture with technology.

To quote this document

Onyekachi Henry IBEKWE, «Ruminations on the Debilitating Triad: Neo-Colonialism, Predatory Capitalism and Militarism», Jocap [En ligne], 2021, 1|21 Philosophy, Politics and Africanism, mis à jour le : 03/03/2021, URL : https://journal.domuni.eu:443/jocap/index.php?id=284.

Some words about:  Onyekachi Henry IBEKWE

MA - PhD Student, University of Nigeria